ЙОГО ВЕЛИЧНІСТЬ ШОВК


ШОВК

Одного разу дружина китайського Жовтого імператора Сі Лінг Чі близько 3000 р. до н.е. насолоджувалась чаєм під шовковицею Несподівано кокон тутового шовкопряда упав з дерева прямо в чашку імператриці. В гарячій рідниі кокон став розмотуватися і Сі Лінг Чі із здивуванням помітила красиву й ніжну, але водночас дуже міцну нитку. Жінка настільки була зачарована красою нитки, що вирішила зібрати кокони і виготовити з цього матеріалу одяг для свого чоловіка імператора. Так за древньою китайською легендою було винайдено секрет виготовлення одного із символів Китаю – шовку.

         Довгий час правом носити шовковий одяг володіла лише імператорська родина. А в Китаї поступово склався культ шовку. Стародавні тексти згадують про жертвопринесення Богу шовкопряда, а також про священні тутові гаї і навіть шанування окремих тутових дерев. У часи династії Хань (206 р. до н.е. – 220 р. н.е.) шовк перетворився на грошовий еквівалент як усередині країни, так і в зовнішній торгівлі Китаю. Цінність шовку розраховувалася залежно від довжини і прирівнювалася до золота.

         Піднебесна імперія ретельно берегла секрет виготовлення шовкового чуда. За його розголошення навіть передбачалась смертна кара. Однак християнські місіонери близько 550 року таємно вивезли насіння тутового дерева та личинок тутового шовкопряда до Візантії. Невдовзі у цій країні розвинулось власне виробництво шовку. Монополістом у цій справі були держава і церква, які створювали власні майстерні і так само як і китайці ретельно берегли секрет шовкового виробництва. А вже з VIII – IX століть шовк стали виготовляти в Іспанії, а через кількасот років його успішно виготовляли міста Італії, даючи тканинам свої назви. За легендою італійське виробництво шовку розпочалося з двох тисяч майстринь, вивезених в ХІІІ ст. в Італію з Константинополя.

         Попри те, що шовк давно вже виготовляють у різних країнах Європи та Азії, провідним виробником цієї прекрасної тканини й досі є його батьківщина – Китай.


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